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The peoples of the Crimea – the invasion of the Huns

The Huns – nomadic people of Central Asia – even in the III-II centuries BC united in Mongolia and Southern Baikal.

In the III  AD Huns came to the Volga and the Donetsk steppe. Part of the Alans who lived there was conquered by the Huns and involved in their fight against the Goths. Early Medieval historian Ammianus Marcellina reports that the Huns moved west and fought with the Goths in the same ranks with the Alans.

The Huns

The Huns

By breaking down the ready in the IV, Huns filled steppes and foothills of the Crimean peninsula and the subdued part of Alan tribes.

Written sources and archaeological materials in IV say that among the Huns occurred property differentiation. The basis of the economy of the Huns was partly nomadic herding and farming, hunting has played a big role.

Around 450, the Huns, led by their leader Attila invaded the Eastern Roman possessions in Central Europe, and in 451-452 years made devastating raids on Gaul and Italy. In 453, after the death of their leader Attila, their tribal alliance broke up, most of it belonged to the tribes returned to the Black Sea steppes. In Crimea, the Huns finally destroyed steppe and foothill villages and devastated the fertile river valleys. Local people took the nomads in remote mountainous areas to the south- west of the Crimea, in the upper reaches of rivers, where there are new settlements, shelter and settlements.

The Huns made the  final death blow to kingdom of Bosporus in 70 years the IV.. By the end of IV – beginning of the IV Panticapaeum, once the capital of the richest Bosporus, has turned into a small town in the Bosporus, and lived not so much trade and crafts as agriculture.

Panticapaeum, Kerch

Panticapaeum, Kerch

No less serious than the Bosporus, the state suffered late Scythians cities such as Naples Scythian, Alma -Kerman, Ust – Alminsk, Red and others.

By this time, the ethnic composition of the population of Crimea is very complicated, what is convincing and anthropological data. Steppes and foothills occupied the Scythians and Sarmatians, mountains, south- east coast – Tauris. In coastal cities lived mainly Greeks, but there was there a layer of Scythian, Sarmatian, Alan population.

Naples Scythian, Simferopol

Naples Scythian, Simferopol

Hun invasion interrupted the connection of the Crimean peninsula with the tribes of South- Eastern Europe. Steppes of the Northern Black Sea and Azov Sea occupied the economically backward nomadic hordes. Scythian- Sarmatian Alans were driven into the mountains, where gradually merged with the descendants of the Tauri. It was a mixed population, and in the early Middle Ages the main mountain in Crimea.

This was in general economic and political conditions in which there was Crimea at the turn of antiquity and the Middle Ages.

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